International Agreement On Antarctica

The provisions of this treaty apply to the area south of the southern space of 60 degrees, including all ice rays, but nothing in this treaty in any way affects or affects the rights or exercise of international law with respect to the high seas in that zone. Recognising that it is in the interest of all humanity that Antarctica should forever be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and not become the scene or object of international discord; The numerous international tensions over Antarctica and the risk of the spread of the Cold War on that continent prompted U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to convene a conference on Antarctica in the twelve active countries to sign a treaty during the International Geophysical Year. In the first phase, representatives of the twelve nations met in Washington, D.C., which met in 60 meetings from June 1958 to October 1959 to define the basic negotiating framework. However, no consensus was reached on a draft. In the second phase, a conference at the highest diplomatic level was held from 15 October to 1 December 1959, the date of the signing of the treaty. The central ideas, which were fully accepted, were the freedom of scientific research in Antarctica and the peaceful use of the continent. Nevertheless, there was also consensus on their demilitarization and maintaining the status quo. The positions of the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and New Zealand coincided with the creation of an international administration for Antarctica, which the United Nations proposes. Australia and the United Kingdom expressed the need for observer inspections and the second suggested the use of military means for logistics functions. Argentina has proposed a ban on all nuclear explosions in Antarctica, which has caused a crisis that lasted until the day before the enterprise, with the United States intending, along with other countries, to ban only those that were made without notice and without prior consultation. The support of the USSR and Chile for the Argentine proposal eventually prompted the United States to withdraw its opposition.

The 21st Consultative Meeting of the Antarctic Treaty (ATCM) was held in Stockholm, Sweden, on 6 and 17 June. After nearly 13 years of negotiations, the parties have agreed on rules of liability for environmental emergencies in Antarctica. The agreement requires states operating in Antarctica to take steps to prevent, minimize or limit the effects of an environmental emergency. The meeting also adopted guidelines for the development and implementation of environmental monitoring programs. The guidelines contain practical recommendations for states, but are not binding on Member States and guidelines for assessing environmental impacts in Antarctica, to ensure transparency and effectiveness of environmental impact assessment during the planning phase of possible activities in Antarctica. Governments that are parties to the Antarctic Treaty and its Protocol on Environmental Protection implement the articles of these agreements and the decisions taken under these agreements by national legislation. These laws generally apply only to their own citizens, wherever they are in Antarctica, and are intended to enforce the consensual decisions of the advisory parties: activities that are acceptable, entry areas, processes that must precede environmental impact assessment activities, etc.